Miss America protest - Wikipedia，Miss America 1969，New York Radical Women, NYRW，Women’s liberation movement，Vietnam War，Draft-card_burning，女性主义，舒拉米斯·费尔斯通（Shulamith Firestone），duke.edu 资料，Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward，Miss Black America，Sisterhood Is Powerful（咱们姐妹有力量）。
题目暂定为：1969 年女性平权运动，1969 年美利坚小姐抗议活动，或者美利坚小姐抗议活动
The Miss America protest was a demonstration held at the Miss America 1969 contest on September 7, 1968, attended by about 200 feminists and civil rights advocates. The feminist protest was organized by New York Radical Women and included putting symbolic feminine products into a “Freedom Trash Can” on the Atlantic City boardwalk, including bras, hairspray, makeup, girdles, corsets, false eyelashes, mops, and other items. The protesters also unfurled a large banner emblazoned with “Women’s Liberation“ inside the contest hall, drawing worldwide media attention to the Women’s Liberation Movement.
美利坚小姐抗议活动发生在 1968 年 9 月 7 日，其时适逢 1969 年美利坚小姐竞选期，此次活动约有 200 名女权主义者和民权倡导者参加。这场女权主义抗议活动由纽约激进女权组织（New York Radical Women, NYRW），包括将具有象征意义的女性产品放入大西洋城木板路的“自由垃圾桶”，包括胸罩、发胶、化妆品、腰带、紧身胸衣、假睫毛、拖把等物品。抗议者还在比赛大厅内打出了写有“妇女解放”的大型横幅，引起了全世界媒体对妇女解放运动的关注。
Reporter Lindsy Van Gelder drew an analogy between the feminist protesters throwing bras in the trash cans and Vietnam War protesters who burned their draft cards. The bra-burning trope was permanently attached to the event and became a catch-phrase of the feminist era.
记者林赛·范·格尔德（Lindsy Van Gelder）将抗议者的反抗行为和越战抗议者烧毁征兵卡（Draft-card_burning）相比较。“点燃文胸”永远地和“女性权益抗争者”联系在了一起，成为女权主义时代的流行语。
The New York Radical Women was a group of women that had been active in the civil rights movement, the New Left, and antiwar movements. The group was organized in the fall of 1967 by former TV child star Robin Morgan, Carol Hanisch, Shulamith Firestone, and Pam Allen. They were searching for a suitable way to draw attention to their movement.
纽约激进女权组织（New York Radical Women, NYRW）是一个活跃于民权运动、新左翼运动和反战运动的女性团体。该团体于 1967 年秋天由前电视童星罗宾·摩根（Robin Morgan）、卡罗尔·哈尼思（Carol Hanisch）组织 、舒拉米斯·费尔斯通（Shulamith Firestone）和帕姆·艾伦（Pam Allen）。 她们正在寻找一种合适的方式来引起人们对女权运动的关注。
Hanisch said that she got the idea to target the Miss America contest after the group, including Morgan, Kathie Sarachild, Rosalyn Baxandall, Alix Kates Shulman, Patricia Mainardi, Irene Peslikis, and Ellen Willis, watched a movie that depicted how beauty standards oppressed women. It included clips of a Miss America parading in her swimsuit. “It got me thinking that protesting the pageant might be a good way to launch the movement into the public consciousness,” Hanisch said. “Because up until this time, we hadn’t done a lot of actions yet. We were a very small movement. It was kind of a gutsy thing to do. Miss America was this ‘American pie‘ icon. Who would dare criticize this?” The group decided to incorporate the techniques successfully used by the civil rights movement and adapt it to the new idea of women’s liberation.
In a letter on August 29, 1968, to the city mayor, Morgan requested a permit. She explained that the purpose of the protest was to demonstrate their objections to the pageant’s focus on women’s bodies over their brains, “on youth rather than maturity, and on commercialism rather than humanity”.
1968 年 8 月 29 日，摩根在致市长的一封信中请求获得许可。 她解释说，抗议的目的是为了表明她们反对选美比赛的重点——对女性身体的兴趣远大于对其智慧的关注，“过于关注年轻的肉体而非成熟的思想，过于关注商业赢利而非人性的闪光。”（出自信件 P5）
In her letter requesting a permit, Morgan named the sponsor of the protest as “Women’s Liberation”, a “loose coalition of small groups and individuals”. She was the key organizer of the protest. The advisory sponsor was Florynce Kennedy‘s Media Workshop, an activist group she founded in 1966 to protest the media’s representation of African Americans. Other members of New York Radical Women were involved in protesting and documenting the event. Bev Grant, a musician and filmmaker / photographer with Newsreel who part in the protests, also shot film and took photos of the protests and of the pageant itself. Peggy Dobbins, a performer and activist, created a life-sized Miss America puppet which she displayed on the boardwalk in the guise of a carnival barker auctioning her off. Participants also came from National Organization for Women, the feminist Jeannette Rankin Brigade and the American Civil Liberties Union. Men were barred from taking part.
摩根在请求许可的信中将抗议的发起者称为“妇女解放”组织，一个“小团体与个人组成的松散联盟”。她是这次抗议活动的主要组织者。顾问赞助商是弗洛伦斯·肯尼迪（Florynce Kennedy）的媒体研讨会，这是她于 1966 年创立的一个活动团体，该团体旨在抗议媒体对非裔美国人的报道。纽约激进女权组织（New York Radical Women, NYRW）的其他成员也参与了抗议并记录了这一事件：贝夫·格兰特 (Bev Grant) 是一位媒体中心和电影发行公司（Third World Newsreel）的音乐家兼电影制片人/摄影师，他拍摄了抗议活动和选美活动的胶片和照片。佩吉·多宾斯 (Peggy Dobbins) 是一名表演者和活动家，她创作了一个真人大小的美国小姐木偶，以狂欢节叫卖者的名义将其展示在木板人行道上。其他参与者还有：全国妇女组织、女权主义者珍妮特·兰金以及美国公民自由联盟。男性被禁止参与其中。
The press release for the event contained sentiments that resonated well beyond the movement, such as “Miss America is a walking commercial for the pageant’s sponsors. Wind her up and she plugs your product…” and “last year she went to Vietnam to pep-talk our husbands, fathers, sons and boyfriends into dying and killing with a better spirit…”
About 200 members of the group New York Radical Women traveled to Atlantic City in cars and chartered buses. On September 7, 1968, about 400 feminists from New York City, Florida, Boston, Detroit, and New Jersey gathered on the Atlantic City Boardwalk outside the Miss America Pageant. They protested what they called “The Degrading Mindless-Boob-Girlie Symbol” and American society’s normative beauty expectations. They marched with signs, passed out pamphlets, including one titled No More Miss America, and crowned a live sheep—comparing the beauty pageant to livestock competitions at county fairs, including an illustration of a woman’s figure marked up like a side of beef.
约 200 名纽约激进女性团体成员或乘坐汽车，或包车前往了大西洋城。1968 年 9 月 7 日，来自纽约市、佛罗里达州、波士顿、底特律和新泽西州的约 400 名女权主义者聚集在美利坚小姐选美比赛外的大西洋城海滨木板人行道上。她们对所谓“女性胸大无脑，有辱人格的刻板印象”，以及美国社会对女性的规训提出抗议。她们举着标语游行，分发小册子，其中包括一本名为“不再有美利坚小姐”的小册子，并为一只活羊加冕——将选美比赛与县集市（Agricultural show）上的牲畜展示进行比较，包括一幅被标记为牛肉的女性插图。
They threw a number of feminine products into a “Freedom Trash Can”. These included mops, pots and pans, copies of Cosmopolitan and Playboy magazines, false eyelashes, high-heeled shoes, curlers, hairspray, makeup, girdles, corsets, and bras; items the protesters called “instruments of female torture” and accouterments of what they perceived to be enforced femininity.
Protesters saw the pageant and its symbols as oppressing women. They decried its emphasis on an arbitrary standard of beauty. They were against the labeling, public worship and exploitation of the “most beautiful girl in America.” Sarachild, one of the protest organizers, reported that “huge crowds gathered for the picketing. People were grabbing our fliers out of our hands.”
Along with tossing the items into the trash can and distributing literature outside, four protesters including Kathie Sarachild and Carol Hanisch bought tickets and entered the hall. While the outgoing 1968 Miss America, Debra Barnes Snodgrass, was giving her farewell speech, the women unfurled a bedsheet from the balcony that said “Women’s Liberation” and began to shout “women’s liberation!“ and “No more Miss America!” They got out a half-dozen shouts before they were quickly removed by police. While TV cameras at the event didn’t show them, newspapers all around the country covered the protest. “I think it kind of made the phrase ‘women’s liberation’ a household term,” Sarachild says.](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miss_America_protest#cite_note-burnbra-21) “The media picked up on the bra part,” Hanisch said later. “I often say that if they had called us ‘girdle burners,’ every woman in America would have run to join us.”
除了将物品扔进垃圾桶并在外面分发宣传品外，包括凯西·萨拉柴尔德（Kathie Sarachild）和卡罗尔·哈尼思（Carol Hanisch）在内的四名抗议者购买了门票并进入大厅。当即将离任的 1968 年美利坚小姐黛布拉·巴恩斯·斯诺德格拉斯 (Debra Barnes Snodgrass) 发表告别演说时，妇女们从阳台上展开一张写有“妇女解放”的床单，并高呼“妇女解放！” 和“不再有美利坚小姐！” 的口号，她们大声喊叫了六声，之后很快就被警察带走了。尽管活动现场的电视摄像机没有拍摄到她们，但全国各地的报纸都报道了这次抗议活动。 “我认为这次活动让‘妇女解放’这个词变得家喻户晓，”萨拉柴尔德说。“媒体开始关注女性权益，”哈尼思后来说。“我经常说，如果他们称我们为‘紧身裙燃烧者（girdle burners）’，那美国的每个女性都会跑来加入我们。”
Outgoing Miss America Snodgrass said that the protesters were diminishing the hard work of thousands of competitors who were attending school and had put a lot of effort into developing their talents.
The dramatic, symbolic use of a trash can to dispose of feminine objects caught the media’s attention. Protest organizer Hanisch said about the Freedom Trash Can afterward, “We had intended to burn it, but the police department, since we were on the boardwalk, wouldn’t let us do the burning.” A story by Lindsy Van Gelder in the New York Post carried a headline “Bra Burners and Miss America”. Her story drew an analogy between the feminist protest and Vietnam War protesters who burned their draft cards. Individuals who were present said that no one burned a bra nor did anyone take off her bra.
使用垃圾桶来处理女性物品这一富于戏剧性、象征性的做法引起了媒体的注意。抗议组织者哈尼思事后谈到自由垃圾桶时说：“我们本来打算烧掉那些东西，但警察局以我们在木板路上为由，不让我们烧。”《纽约邮报》林赛·范·格尔德 (Lindsy Van Gelder) 发表的一篇报道的标题是“胸罩燃烧者和美利坚小姐”。她的故事将女权主义抗议者与烧毁征兵卡的越战争抗议者进行了类比。在场人士表示，当时并没有人烧文胸，也没有人将其脱下。
However, respected author Joseph Campbell found a local news story reporting that articles were in fact burned, and a witness corroborating the news story. The article and the witness contradicted the feminists’ statements, stating that lingerie was in fact burned at least briefly that day. An article on page 4 of the Atlantic City Press reported, “Bra-burners blitz boardwalk”. It stated, “As the bras, girdles, falsies, curlers, and copies of popular women’s magazines burned in the Freedom Trash Can, the demonstration reached the pinnacle of ridicule when the participants paraded a small lamb wearing a gold banner worded Miss America.” A second story in the same newspaper written by Jon Katz did not mention burning lingerie, but Campbell interviewed Katz. Katz, who was present that day, confirmed that bras and other items had been set on fire: “…the fire was small, and quickly was extinguished.” The feminists insisted afterward that the story was wrong.
然而，广受人尊敬的作家约瑟夫·坎贝尔发现当地的一篇新闻报道称文章确实被烧毁，并且一名目击者证实了该新闻报道。文章和目击者反驳了女权主义者的说法，称实际上内衣在那天至少被短暂烧毁过。《大西洋城报》第 4 页的一篇文章报道了“文胸燃烧者和木板路的闪电战”。文章称，“当胸罩、腰带、假发、卷发夹和流行女性杂志被扔进自由垃圾桶时，示威活动达到了抗议活动的顶峰，参与者们举着一只戴着金色横幅、写着“美利坚小姐”的小羔羊。”乔恩·卡茨（Jon Katz）在同一份报纸上写的第二篇报道并未提到燃烧内衣一事，但在坎贝尔对卡茨的采访中，当天他在现场，可以证实胸罩和其他物品被点燃：“……火势很小，很快就被扑灭了。”抗议者后来坚称这并非事实。
The parallel between protesters burning their draft cards and women burning their bras were encouraged by organizers including Robin Morgan. The phrase became headline material and was quickly associated with women who chose to go braless. Feminism and “bra-burning” then became linked in popular culture.
Deborah J. Cohan, an associate professor of sociology at the University of South Carolina, Beaufort, believes that bra-burning has become negatively associated with feminism.
南卡罗来纳大学博福特分校社会学副教授黛博拉·J·科汉 (Deborah J. Cohan) 认为，对于女权主义而言，“燃烧文胸”已然对其产生了负面影响。
When people say, ‘Are you one of those bra-burning feminists?’ — and yes, I have been asked this many times — the people who ask this are doing so from a pre-existing place of hostility toward feminism.
燃烧文胸呼应了上一代女权主义者，他们呼吁燃烧紧身胸衣，并将其作为迈向解放的一步。1873 年，伊丽莎白·斯图尔特·菲尔普斯·沃德 (Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward，作家，活动家) 写道：
Burn up the corsets! … No, nor do you save the whalebones, you will never need whalebones again. Make a bonfire of the cruel steels that have lorded it over your thorax and abdomens for so many years and heave a sigh of relief, for your emancipation I assure you, from this moment has begun.
烧掉紧身胸衣！ ……不，你也不拯救鲸骨，你再也不需要鲸骨（旧时用以支撑衣服）了。 把多年来束缚着你胸膛和腹部的冰冷金属点燃，松一口气，我向你保证，从这一刻起，你自由了。
Author and feminist Bonnie J. Dow suggested that the association between feminism and bra-burning was encouraged by individuals who opposed the feminist movement. “Bra-burning” created an image that women were not really seeking freedom from sexism, but were attempting to assert themselves as sexual beings. This might lead individuals to believe, as she wrote in her article “Feminism, Miss America, and Media Mythology”, that the women were merely trying to be “trendy, and to attract men”.
作家兼女权主义者邦妮·J·道 (Bonnie J. Dow) 认为，女权主义与燃烧文胸之间建立的联系是受到反女权运动者的鼓吹。“燃烧文胸”创造了一种表象，即女性（女权主义者）并不是真正寻求摆脱性别歧视，而是试图宣称自己只是作为一种性别存在（吸引眼球）。正如她在《女权主义、美利坚小姐和媒体神话》一文中所写，这可能会导致让人们相信，女性只是想“赶时髦，得到异性的青睐”。
Women associated with an act like symbolically burning their bra may be seen by some as law-breaking radicals, eager to shock the public. This view may have supported the efforts of opponents to feminism and their desire to invalidate the movement. Some feminist activists believe that anti-feminists use the bra-burning myth and the subject of going braless to trivialize what the protesters were trying to accomplish that day and the feminist movement in general. Joseph Campbell described the reaction that ensued as “serving to denigrate and trivialize the objectives of the women’s liberation movement.”
The protest planners produced a press release before the event that was afterward turned into a pamphlet titled No More Miss America!. The pamphlet called on women to help “reclaim ourselves for ourselves”. Written by Robin Morgan, it listed ten characteristics of the Miss America pageant that Morgan believed degraded women.
Morgan wrote that the pageant contestants epitomize the “Degrading Mindless-Boob-Girlie Symbol”. The runway parade is a metaphor of the 4-H Club county fair, where the animals are judged for teeth, hair, grooming, and so forth, and where the best specimen is awarded the blue ribbon. Since its inception in 1921, only Caucasian contestants had been accepted as finalists, so the authors derided the contest as “Racism with Roses”. They criticized the “cheerleader” tour taken by the winner to visit troops in foreign countries as “Miss America as Military Death Mascot”. Her support of troops personifies the “unstained patriotic American womanhood our boys are fighting for”.
对女性“胸大无脑 / 以貌取人”等有辱人格的描述——摩根写道。选美选手恰恰是这种刻板印象的缩影——选美比赛的目的就是要求我们成为那样的女性。路上的游行隐喻着四健会（4-H Club）的县集市——在那里，紧张兮兮的动物会被根据牙齿、羊毛等进行评判，而最好的“样本”将会获得蓝丝带。自 1921 年创办以来，只能有白人参赛者作为决赛选手，因此作者嘲笑这场比赛是“玫瑰中的种族主义”。 他们批评获胜者以“拉拉队长”的身份访问外国军队，称其为“军事死亡吉祥物”。美利坚小姐代表了“我们的孩子们正在为之奋斗的纯洁的爱国美国女性气质”。
She wrote that Miss America is a walking commercial for the pageant’s sponsors, making her a primary part of “The Consumer Con-Game”. It deplored the win-or-you’re-worthless competitive disease, which it described as “Competition Rigged and Unrigged”. The authors criticized “The Woman as Pop Culture Obsolescent Theme”, which they described as the promotion of women who are young, juicy, and malleable, but upon the selection of a new winner each year, are discarded.
She compared the pageant to Playboy‘s centerfold as sisters under the skin, describing this as “The Unbeatable Madonna–Whore Combination”. The writers accused the competition of encouraging women to be inoffensive, bland, and apolitical, ignoring characteristics like personality, articulateness, intelligence, and commitment. They called this “The Irrelevant Crown on the Throne of Mediocrity”. The pamphlet said the pageant was “Miss America as Dream Equivalent To”, positioning itself as the penultimate goal of every little girl, while boys were supposed to grow up and become President of the United States. Men are judged by their actions, women by appearance.
她将这次选美大赛与《花花公子》的插页女郎相比，称其为圣母-妓女情结（Madonna whore complex）。 作者指责这项竞赛需要女性表现得温驯且不关心政治，忽视个性、口才、智慧和奉献精神等特征，被称之为“平庸王座上的无关紧要的王冠”。小册子写道，选美比赛将“美利坚小姐等同于个人梦想”，小女孩们将其视作她们人生倒数第二个目标，而男孩则应该长大后成为美国总统。 男人通过行为来评判，而女人则通过外表来评判。
Morgan wrote that the pageant attempted thought control, creating the illusion of “Miss America as Big Sister Watching You”. It attempted to enslave women in high-heeled, low-status roles, and to inculcate values in young girls like women as beasts of shopping. “No More Miss America!” was the very first public pamphlet of the time to share the movement’s ideals; therefore, complaints about the Pageant, recorded in the pamphlet, outlined and predicted numerous problems these women might have to overcome in their battle for equality. The pamphlet became a source for feminist scholarship.
摩根写道，选美比赛试图控制思想，制造出“美利坚小姐就像大姐姐在看着你”的错觉。它试图强化男性高高在上（施虐者）的形象，让女性服从于外物（e.g 高跟鞋）的卑劣形象更更深入人心；给年轻女性灌输错误的价值观；把女性视作购物狂。 “不再有美利坚小姐了！” 是当时第一本分享该运动理想的公共小册子； 小册子中记录了对选美比赛的抱怨，概述并预测了这些妇女在争取平等的斗争中可能必须克服的许多问题。这本小册子成为女权主义学术的参考来源。
A six-minute documentary, Up Against the Wall Miss America (1968), concerns the Miss America protest.
一部六分钟的纪录片《美利坚小姐的绝境》(Up Against the Wall Miss America, 1968) 讲述了相关抗议活动。
The demonstration was largely responsible for bringing the women’s liberation movement into the American national consciousness. The event “‘marked the end of the movement’s obscurity’ and made both ‘women’s liberation’ and beauty standards topics for national discussion”.
“不再有美国小姐！”被收录在罗宾·摩根编辑的 1970 年选集《Sisterhood Is Powerful（咱们姐妹有力量）》中。
Main article: Miss Black America
Also on September 7, 1968, in Atlantic City, a separate civil rights demonstration took place in the form of a beauty pageant. African Americans and civil rights activists gather to crown the first Miss Black America. The winner, nineteen-year-old Philadelphia native Saundra Williams, had been active on the civil rights scene prior to the competition. As a student at Maryland State College, she helped organize the Black Awareness Movement with her classmates and staged a sit-in at a local restaurant, which refused to serve African Americans.
同样是在 1968 年 9 月 7 日，在大西洋城，民权示威活动以一场选美比赛的形式进行。非裔美国人和民权活动家们齐聚一堂，为首届美国黑人小姐（Miss Black America）加冕。获胜者是十九岁的费城人桑德拉·威廉姆斯 (Saundra Williams)，之前她一直活跃在民权舞台上。作为马里兰州立大学的学生，她与同学一起组织了黑人意识觉醒运动，并在当地一家拒绝为非裔美国人提供服务的餐馆举行静坐活动。
Miss America does not represent us because there has never been a black girl in the pageant. With my title, I can show black women that they too are beautiful. … There is a need to keep saying this over and over because for so long none of us believed it. But now we’re finally coming around.
The competition, organized by civil rights activist J. Morris Anderson, was held at the Ritz Carlton a few blocks from Convention Hall, where the Miss America pageant took place the same evening. The Miss Black America contestants, prior to competition, rode in a convertible motorcade through the streets of Atlantic City and were greeted with cheers and applause, especially from members of the black community.
选美由民权活动家 J. Morris Anderson 组织，在距离会议厅几个街区的丽思卡尔顿酒店举行——而就在当天晚上，美利坚小姐的选美比赛就在那里举行。美国黑人小姐参赛者在比赛前乘坐敞篷车队穿过大西洋城的街道，受到了热烈的欢呼和掌声——尤其是来自黑人社区成员的鼓舞。
The Miss Black America protest and the NYRW protest were driven by fundamentally different motivation. NYRW protested the very idea of beauty standards and the pageant that upheld them. The Miss Black America protesters had no grievances with the idea of beauty standards, but with the fact that they strongly favored white women. While NYRW wanted to dismantle the whole idea of beauty, Miss Black America protesters wanted to expand notions of beauty to include all races.
美国黑人小姐抗议活动和 NYRW 抗议活动的动机并不相同。 NYRW 抗议所谓的“美丽标准”，以及维护这些标准的选美比赛。美国黑人小姐抗议者对美丽标准的定义没有任何不满——尽管比赛更偏爱白人女性。NYRW 想要废除对女性“美丽”的定义，但美国黑人小姐抗议者希望的是去除选美比赛中的种族歧视。
Feminist protester and organizer Robin Morgan said “We deplore Miss Black America as much as Miss White America but we understand the black issue involved.”